In Low-Income Countries
Fumes from cooking fires constitute a huge source of air pollution in these regions. The cooking fires are made from natural sources such as wood, coal, animal dung, etc. Because these cooking areas are poorly ventilated, they come down with COPD from continuous exposure over several years.
Workplace exposure is also a significant cause of COPD. The source of this exposure is from dust in coal industries, textile manufacturing plants, gold mines, welding fumes, etc. In low-income countries, there is poor regulation of these industries so there are no strict measures to ensure the protection of workers.
Statistics have shown that about 10-20% of the total cases of COPD are caused by occupational exposure. And the risk is equivalent to one and a half packs of cigarettes smoked every day.